Sunday, November 10, 2019
THE IMPACT OF RAPID URBANIZATION ON HOUSING DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA FROM 1950 -2010 (Focus on urban developments and housing problems case study: Lagos) Urbanization according to Aluko O. E is rather subjective and can be given various interpretations. However in this concept it can be defined as the expansion of the number of people living in an urban area that depicts the rate at which people move from rural areas and populate the urban areas.Reports however, from the united nation show that the population at the urban centres has multiplied four times its initial growth since 1960 and would have risen to a projected number of about 5 billion in the year 2030. Report also has it that over 70 per cent of these populations would settle in cities and towns. Following independence, many administrative centres experienced major unplanned rapid urbanization .The ripple effect of these on cities being the core of urban development is enormous especially on the housing development which has eventually resulted in overcrowding, inadequate dwellings, deplorable urban environment, degrading public infrastructure, and to an extreme, Ã¢â¬Å"outright homelessnessÃ¢â¬ (Adesoji David Jiboye, 2011) . Nonetheless, According to Femi Olokesusi, 2011 quoting Onibokun et. al. 1987) and Onibolun and Kumuyi (1999), assert that various political and socio-economic factors have resulted in rapid growth of urban population resulting in informal settlements, poor housing and slums in Nigeria. The rate of influx of people into major cities has been so high that the pace of settlement development and housing provision could not accommodate them. Since they must have shelter, all forms of informal procedures are adopted to provide housing. This has resulted in non-compliance with physical planning regulations and development control standards.Thus there have been cases of incompatibility of land use activities, overcrowding (due to high occupancy ratio, high density of development), poor construction standards (due to use of substandard building materials and construction methods), and ill-serviced dwelling Units, among others. The impact of rapid population growth however, on urban development and conditions is far more than merely a demographic or quantitative one especially on housing development as a whole which is a direct consequence of the push of the rural areas and the pull of the town.Current studies however indicate that the impact of rapid urbanization in terms of housing is revealed both in its quantity and quantity such that the little number of available houses is being overloaded infrastructurally and spatially leading to a reduction in the level of comfort and a rapid development in the number of slums being created and the level of substandard houses being built in an unplanned and unhealthy environment.However, the level of impact on the adequacy of housing has been compounded particularly by the high rate of population growth, through influx of immigrants, exaggerated real estate values etc. Nonetheless, housing according to Aduwo 2011, Daramola 2006 et al is the measure of the level of housing inadequacy and its quality. According to pelu Awofeso, one out of every two Nigerians now live in a city leaving limited infrastructure to be engulfed by millions of individuals.In his report he stated that 16 million housing units would have to be provided to address the shortage in urban shelters since the inflow of people supersedes the rate at which affordable housing is being constructed. Housing however, according to Abbas Olukunmi Owoade, 2007 quoting Tannerfeldt and Ljung Ã¢â¬Ë06)does not only relate to provision of houses but also basic infrastructure of a neighbourhood as well as schools clinics , recreational facilities and other amenities. CASE STUDY:LAGOSThe city of Lagos was first inhibited before the 15th century and grew from a typical small fishing and farming settlement due to certain factors such as, the constru ction of the railway in 1895 that linked the city, the hinterland and the port with the development of the Lagos harbour. In the twinkle of an eye, Lagos became the centre of trade and commerce bringing migrants from every nook and cranny. As the population increased so did the spatial expansion which posed a great deal of problems especially housing development. kehinde George, 2002). Population explosion in lagos became noticeable after 1950 amongst other reason, it was the national capital and in Ã¢â¬â¢67 became a state on its own attracting funds from both the federal and state government there by introducing more migrants. However, Over 90 per cent of the typical housing standard is being provided by the private sector and individual efforts bringing about a gap between its demand and supply finding expression in the cost of rented values that eventually leads to vercrowding, growth of slums and rise in the number of substandard housing (Owoade,Abiodun Ã¢â¬Ë97). Two major f actors that accounted for the rapid growth in lagos can tied to net migration and natural increase According to the old United Nations university website, prior to 1928, planned residential areas in Lagos were limited. They included Ikoyi, which was a reservation area for expatriates who were colonial administrators and executives of foreign firms, and had a population of 4,000, or 3 per cent of the population of the city in 1931.Apapa, Ebute Meta, and Yaba, with a combined population of 22,000, or 17 per cent of the total, also had some element of planning, in the sense that road networks in Ebute Meta and Yaba were laid out on a grid and residential development was confined to the blocks within the road pattern. On Lagos Island, apart from the areas around the racecourse and marina, the indigenous housing was unplanned and was left to develop haphazardly, with houses built quite close together.Such overcrowded, unhealthy housing and poor environmental conditions stimulated the rap id spread of influenza epidemics and bubonic plague, which ravaged the city between 1924 and 1930. These led to the emergence, in 1928, of the pioneer planning authority in Nigeria, the Lagos Executive Development Board (LEDB), which embarked on slum clearance and the relocation of families from the Island to the Mainland (Oko Awo scheme) and since then, the activities of planning authorities have assumed considerable importance in metropolitan Lagos.The government of Nigeria has interceded at different times to solve housing problems with particular focus on Lagos by providing housing units as well as establishing site and service programmes to make available plots of lands to individual to build their own houses, the period 1979-1983 under the Jakande administration witnessed a massive housing development programme. evertheless, These programmes had little impact in that it provided limited number of housing units with a major setback in the year 1994 due to increase in price of b uilding materials. Thus, making a considerable number of Lagosians lack Ã¢â¬Å"shelterÃ¢â¬ a basic need of human existence. The wide gap between the supply of and the demand for has operated in escalating house rents, rent edict were promulgated to reduce this hardship by working population .In 1973 for instance the mid-west state government proclaimed an edict which limited the maximum rent payable on dwelling units. However, such edicts have not been effective in arresting increase in house rents (Josephine Abiodun,1976) Planned housing schemes in metropolitan Lagos |Housing agency |Scheme |Remarks | |Lagos Executive Development |Slum clearance of Central Lagos, 1955 to|1,847 families housed in Surulere. ,337 families resettled | |Board, 1955 -1975 |early 1960s, Olowogbowo Rehousing |in low-income rented houses. Subsidized by Ministry of Lagos| | |Scheme, Lagos Housing Scheme |Affairs | |Ã |Other housing schemes in Surulere |14,537 family units (dwellings) provided.In all, 128,800 | | | |people were provided with housing | |Lagos State Development and |Resettlement of slum dwellers from |1,000 families housed | |Property Corporation (LSDPC), |Central Lagos to Ogba and low-income | | |1972-1979 |housing in Isolo | | |Federal housing |Under 1975-1980 and 1981-1985 plan |6,000 housing units | | |periods | | |LSDPC, 1979 to date |Low-income housing |16,878 housing units | |Ã |Medium-income housing |1,790 housing units | Source: LSDPCIn Lagos, like elsewhere in Nigeria the access to privately owned housing units through traditional channels has made it immensely possible for a relatively large number of people to be house owners at certain cost which includes the sale of the same plot to more than one buyer owing to a lack of a comprehensive land register and sometimes conflict over rights of ownership between the state and private individuals or family groups or between members of families Ã¢â¬Å"omo onileÃ¢â¬ (owoade, abiodun Ã¢â¬Ë97). However , over 60% of these residents are under a tenement kind of arrangement constructed by Ã¢â¬Å"absentee landlordÃ¢â¬ with this kind of arrangement ending abruptly due to unforeseen evictions(Owoade, abiodun et al) The issue of land acquisition at the same time is far more complex because government acquired land is rarely made available or affordable for the average or even made accessible due to lack of basic infrastructure.Alternatively, in order to live closer to job opportunities thereÃ¢â¬â¢s need for settling in centrally located pieces of abandoned land left due to unsuitability for housing either for being along railway paths or under high tension electric cable or marshy lands. (Owoade Ã¢â¬â¢07, Tannerfeldt and Ljung 2006). David Owoade in his report emphatically stated that the Problems of rapid urbanization have increased and become more glaring as the cities expand and many attempts to curb these problems have not achieved the desired results. Housing continued to be supplied through informal self-help landlords and a majority of tenants live in homes with unsecured tenure while many holders find home in slums and shantytowns. Examples include Ajegunle, Makoko, Badiya, Maroko etc.Those that have been fortunate enough to build their houses on the periphery of the cities (ota in sango) have to live without basic services and infrastructures such as clean water, sewers, electricity and roads. In 1976, it was estimated that 111000 residential houses were available in Lagos to provide accommodation for a population of 3. 2 million keeping it at an average of 28 persons per building. By 19080, it had gotten worse with 30 persons living in a building and it was further projected that 2 per cent of the population lived in self-contained buildings leaving the remaining 98 % to rooming accommodations connoting shared facilities like the kitchen and the toilet.It was further estimated that by the year 2000, a total number of 1. 5 million housing units wou ld be needed to cater to fast growing population. It is no surprise that there is no more land for the government to build that they have resulted in sand filling of certain areas ( Raji Rasaki, 1988). However an updated article by lookman oshodi,2010 quoting the Lagos ministry of housing 2010 brings the demography to a total number of 91% of the total population living in the metropolis, about 20,000 persons per square kilometre in the built up areas. The occupancy ratio however are 8-10 persons per room with 72. 5% of household occupying one room apartmentÃ¢â¬â¢s . ince the rate of growth in Lagos has assumed a geometric progression the provision of houses has never been commensurate leading to decay in structure either by quantity or quality. Hence, multiplying the number of inhibited slums from 42 in the year 1985 to over a hundred in 2010. (slums and squatter settlement)also, this Ã¢â¬Å"urban poorÃ¢â¬ pay house rents that are almost 50-70% of their income since most accom modations as earlier said are provided by private landlords. Thus, dividing the metropolis into classes such as low income/high density, medium income/medium density, high income /low density. (Lawanson 2007, lookman oshodi 2010) The population in Lagos seems to growing each day with its problems. onetheless, according to aduwo,2011 quoting (Okupe, 2002; Oruwari, 2006), Public housing was birthed as a solution to the proliferation of slums and squatter settlements but Housing specialists have revealed that public housing has failed to provide decent housing, claiming that it has succeeded in segregating tenants by income, race, and that it has isolated residents from the larger community. However, all these problems have resulted in overcrowding of buildings leaving room for no access, urban sprawl, lack of open spaces, high cost of building materials etc. [pic] Population in lagos Source: case study of lagos:geography and climate [pic] Source: case study of lagos:geography and clim ate Reference 1.MANAGING METROPOLITAN LAGOS ,Raji Rasaki ,Inaugural Programme of the Africa leadership forum, 1988 2. HOUSING TRANSFORMATION AND ITS IMPACT ON NEIGHBOURHOODS IN SELECTED LOW-INCOME PUBLIC HOUSING ESTATES IN LAGOS, NIGERIA: A PhD Thesis: Egidario Bridgette ADUWO,2011 3. THE IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON HOUSING DEVELOPMENT: The Lagos Experience, Nigeria. ;Aluko O. E; Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ; Vol. 3 No. 3 2010 4. PUBLIC HOUSING DELIVERY IN NIGERIA: PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES; World congress on Housing Transforming Housing Environments through the Design south Africa, L. M Olayiwola, O Adeleye & L Ogunshakin, 2005 5.CHALLENGES AND GROWTH OF DEVELOPMET IN METROPLOLITAN LAGOS, archive. unu. edu/unupress/unupbooks; old United Nations university website. 6. ANALYSIS OF THE INTERPLAY OF MIGRATION AND URBAN EXPANSION, ON HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT: THE CASE OF LAGOS by Okuneye P. A, Adebayo, K, Opeolu B. T. and F. I. Baddru; University of Agricultu re, Abeokuta and University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria 7. LAGOS: THE CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF AN EMERGENT AFRICAN MEGA CITY by Femi Olokesusi Paper Presented at the NISER Seminar Series on 5 July, 2011 8. HOUSING PROBLEMS IN NIGERIAN CITIES, Josephine Olu. Abiodun, reprinted from the town planning review, vol. 47, no. 4, October, 1976.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Timeline of American History from 1871 to 1875 1871 President Ulysses S. Grant creates the Civil Service Commission.The Indian Appropriation Act of 1871 is passed. Tribes will no longer be seen as independent but as wards of the State.The Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 is passed. This act allows the president to send in troops to enforce the 14th amendment.The Treaty of Washington between the United States and Great Britain is ratified. This treaty allows for a commission to settle fishing and boundary disputes between the two countries.Ã The New York Times writes investigated articles about William Boss Tweed that reveal the level of corruption in New York City. He is eventually brought to trial.Brigham Young is arrested for polygamy.The Chicago fire leads to the destruction of most of the city. 1872 Yellowstone Park is created as a public preserve.The Freedmans Bureau set up during Reconstruction is effectively ended.The Credit Mobilier Scandal takes occurs. In the scandal, key government officials created a company called of the same name that awarded itself construction contracts to build the railways.Ã Ulysses S. Grant wins a second term by a landslide.William Boss Tweed is convicted of all counts and sentenced to twelve years in prison. He dies while in prison. 1873 The Coinage Act of 1873 is passed. This act removes silver from the coinage in order to more forcefully advocate for the gold standard.Oakes Ames, the man responsible for the Credit Mobilier Scandal is found guilty of bribery. However, he ends up only get censured.The Salary Grab Act is passed. This act provides for increases in salaries for the congress, the supreme court, and the president by 50% and also is retroactive for the previous two years. The uproar is so great that Congress eventually rescinds the raises for themselves but keeps them in place for the supreme court and president.The Panic of 1873 starts a five-year depression, during this time over 10,000 businesses will fail. The stock exchange closes for ten days. 1874 Morrison R. Waite is named the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.Former President Millard Fillmore dies at the age of 74.The Chautauqua movement begins when Lewis Miller and John H. Vincent start a summer training of Sunday school teachers. It will eventually broaden to include many subjects.For the first time since the beginning of the Civil War, the Democratic Party regains control of the House of Representatives.The Womens Christian Temperance Union is formed when individuals from seventeen states meet in Cleveland, Ohio. 1875 The Specie Resumption Act passes Congress. It allows for legal tender to be exchanged for gold. The act also reduces the number of greenbacks in circulation.The US makes a treaty with Hawaii allowing the import of goods to be duty-free. It also asserts that no other power can take over Hawaii.The Civil Rights Act is passed, which states that no one can be denied equal access to public facilities.The Whiskey Ring Scandal occurs. In this scandal, it is shown that officials have been skimming millions from the distilleries. The leader, John McDonald, is a friend of President Grants. In addition, Grants personal secretary, Orville Babcock is involved.Ã Former President Andrew Johnson dies at the age of 66.The Molly Maguires, an Irish miners group, is broken up after their leadership is convicted of murder for its harsh tactics in Pennsylvania. However, their efforts did bring to light the terrible conditions of the miners and eventually led to improvements.The Second Sioux War begins a nd lasts through the fall and winter. By the following summer, they will have been defeated through the efforts of the US military.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Marketing Campaign for a 3 stars resort with and innovative concept in Mallorca Resort description Resort All Inclusive is a 3-stars hotel that recently entered the Mediterranean Basin hotel industry. The hotel is strategically located at Mallorca Island. The hotel industry in Mallorca has been characterized by rampant growth over the past decades as a result of increment in the rate of tourism in the region (Buswell, 2009).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Marketing Campaign for a 3 stars resort with and innovative concept in Mallorca specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Decision to locate the resort at Mallorca was motivated by the need to exploit the tourism resources in the Mediterranean Basin. According to Buswell (2009), Mallorca is characterized by physical resources that are significant in development of tourism. The main resources include beaches, vegetation and fascinating mountains. To attract both local and international customers, Resort All Inclusive is committed at ensuring that client s attain a high level of customer satisfaction. To attract and accommodate a large number of customers, the resort has 4 buildings that have a total of 600 rooms. The rooms are specially designed and furnished to give an appealing ambience. Jenkins and Pigram (2006) are of the opinion that resorts should offer a range of leisure, shopping, transport, recreation, accommodation and entertainment facilities. Inclusion of these components is fundamental in attracting and retaining tourists. This arises from the fact that customers have diverse tastes and preferences. FirmsÃ¢â¬â¢ management team should undertake a comprehensive market research in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of customer needs. The research should focus on both the consumer and the competitor. The resort has incorporated a number of entertainment facilities which include a football courtyard, table tennis, 4 swimming pools, a volleyball court and a mini golf court. Additionally, the resort is also cons tituted of 3 restaurants, 1 oriental thematic restaurant, 3 bars, a pizzeria, snack bar and a barbecue.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Corporate mission Most businesses derive their success from adhering to the set objectives and principles outlined in their mission statement. The mission statement guides the various activities undertaken by businesses (Kazmi, 2008). In the course of its operation, the resort is guided by an effective mission that entails providing unique hospitality experience to customers. The resort intends to achieve this by offering high quality services to customers in addition to promoting a business environment that is fosters a high level of friendship, openness and comfort. To improve its public image, the resort has incorporated the principles of environmental responsibility and sustainability. Objectives and goals One of the aspects th at the resortÃ¢â¬â¢s management team has identified being critical in its quest to attain competitiveness entails creating sufficient market awareness. Consequently, the resort intends to develop a comprehensive marketing campaign. The campaign is aimed at attaining a number of financial and non-financial objectives as outlined below. To provide the resortÃ¢â¬â¢s owners with reasonable return on their investment. The firm intends to achieve this by increasing the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s sales revenue with a margin of 20% within one year after launching the marketing campaign. To continuously increase the resortÃ¢â¬â¢s growth in sales revenue during the summer and winter months and attain global market awareness in 3 years. To create new revenue opportunities by diversifying its source markets. To double the size of customer base within 5 years. Segmentation, targeting and positioning According to Jenkins and Pigram (2006) market segmentation is ranked amongst the most important strate gic management concepts in marketing. Segmentation entails dividing the entire market into small and distinct components depending on variables such as buyer characteristics and customer requirements (Havaldar, 2010). Market segmentation is very important in ensuring that a particular firm effectively addresses the target market needs.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Marketing Campaign for a 3 stars resort with and innovative concept in Mallorca specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the ways through which market segmentation achieves this is by formulate effective marketing strategies. There are various variables that firms can use in the process of segmenting the market. One category of variables includes demographic variables. Johnson, Scholes and Whittington (2008) define targeting to include the process of assessing the most optimal market segment to select. Upon determining the segmentation and targeting stra tegies to be incorporated, it is fundamental for marketing managers to ensure that a clear and appropriate image with regard to the firm and its products or services is developed amongst consumers. To achieve this, marketing managers are charged with the responsibility of ensuring that effective positioning strategies are incorporated. Johnson, Scholes and Whittington (2008) further define positioning as Ã¢â¬Ëthe process of designing distinctive offerings and images for target marketsÃ¢â¬â¢ (p. 261). Over the past decade, Mallorca hotel industry has become very competitive. Intense competition is mainly evident in the 3-star sector. According to Buswell (2009), 55.2% of hotels in Mallorca were 3-star hotels. However, by 2008, the number of 3-star hotels had declined to 52.8%. This shows that 3-star hotels have lost some ground. One of the factors that have led to decline in the number of 3-star hotels relates to emergence of 5-star hotels which have gained substantial publicity. However, their market share is relatively small (Buswell, 2009) Considering the above changes in the hotel industry, it is important for the resortsÃ¢â¬â¢ management team to institute effective segmentation, targeting and positioning strategies.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To attain competitiveness, Resort All Inclusive has adopted demographic variables in segmenting the market. Segmentation will aid in determination of the most effective methods to incorporate in its marketing campaign. The firm segmented the market on the basis of social class. The three main social class constructs that will be considered include lifestyle, income and occupation. To increase its profitability, Resort All Inclusive will target tourists, the business community and visiting business travellers in the Island. The resort will also target high-end consumers who have a relatively high income and have incorporated leisure in their consumption process. To maximize sales revenue, the resort will target both domestic and international tourists. To appeal to a large number of potential customers within the target customer groups, the resort has developed an effective positioning strategy. The positioning strategy entails differentiating the services provided thus increasing th e probability of customers attaining exceptional experiences. Exceptional value will be attained by incorporating the concept of value addition. The resort intends to position itself as a 3-star plus hotel that is strategically located and committed towards provision of differentiated services that will lead in customers feeling respected, appreciated and valued. According to OÃ¢â¬â¢Quinn, Allen and Semenik (2009), advertising campaigns are fundamental components in firmÃ¢â¬â¢s effort to create awareness of their brand. Advertising campaign Resort All Inclusive; Ã¢â¬Å"Stay Resort All Inclusive, Go EverywhereÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"Go ChillÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Go FoodieÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Go RefreshÃ¢â¬ . Media plan The firm appreciates the importance of incorporating an effective media plan in the advertising campaign. According to Drewniany and Jewler (2008), hoteliers should undertake an optimal selection of the media to use in the advertising campaign in order to achieve the intended o bjectives. The campaign will be conducted through both traditional and emerging advertising mediums. Some of the traditional mediums used include posting the advertising message in travel magazines, business dailies and newspapers. To appeal to customers, the firm posts the ad message and images on bill boards that are strategically located. The message is also conveyed to customers through television and radio adverts. The adverts are also posted on the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s website and social media such as You Tube and Facebook in order to reach a large number of potential customers. The media plan used by the firm has been very effective in attracting customers. This arises from the fact that it effectively communicates the unique quality of products and services offered at the hotel. By patronising the hotel, customers are guaranteed maximum satisfaction. The satisfaction is derived from the wide range of products offered. Different foods and drinks that are prepared by qualified chefs are offered in the 3 restaurants in the resort. Consequently, customersÃ¢â¬â¢ tastes and preferences are taken into consideration. The hotel rooms will be fitted with necessary technologies such as Wi-Fi, and free internet in order to cater the needs of business customers and tourists. In effort to appeal to a large number of potential customers, Resort All Inclusive has also adopted use of video in its media plan. The firm posts videos and images of the hotel and the products provided on various mediums such as magazines newspapers, it official website, You Tube and Facebook. Posting images and videos related to Resort All Inclusive products and services such as the sporting facilities, foods and drinks on the internet significantly influences the target customers in their decision making process. The hotel room image below is one of the images posted on the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s website, Facebook and You Tube. This plays a significant role in attracting potential customers by appealing their emotion. Public relations campaign In addition to the ad campaign Resort All Inclusive is committed at developing a strong customer relationship. Gregory (2000) asserts that public relation campaigns are fundamental in developing customer relationship. Considering the fact that the resort is located along the Mallorca Beach, the hotel hosts kite surfing events dubbed Ã¢â¬ËResort All Inclusive, Leisure with a differenceÃ¢â¬ . The event is usually held during the summer and winter seasons. The event is comprised of various surface water sports which include paragliding, windsurfing, extreme sports, gymnastics and wakeboarding. The event attracts different water sports fans within and without Mallorca. Additionally, the hotel also hosts other sports events such as football, table tennis and tennis. Some of the celebrities that the events attract include Roger Federer and Rafa Nadal. The celebrities play an important role in endorsing the event. In the process of making their consumption decisions, consumers are influenced by celebrities. This explains why Resort All Inclusive has appreciated the importance of endorsements of its products and services by renowned celebrities. The event is very famous that it attracts both domestic and international sports journalists who cover the event. Consequently, the resort has been able to develop sufficient market awareness both domestically and internationally. Upon introducing new products and services or improving the existing products, Resort All Inclusive conducts press conferences. The press conference is aimed at creating awareness to target customers regarding the new products and the improvement undertaken. In the press conference, Resort All Inclusive explains the benefits that customers will derive by consuming the new products or services. Both domestic and international journalists are invited in order to create awareness to large number potential customers. According to Marchand (2000), press confere nces are an important element in firmÃ¢â¬â¢s promotional and public relations efforts. To improve its effectiveness in developing a strong customer relationship, the resort also undertakes electronic public relations campaign. To achieve this, the firm has developed a Wiki and a Blog through it interacts with its customers. These tools provide customers with an opportunity to communicate their opinion regarding the services provided by the firm. On the other hand, Resort All Inclusive is able to clarify various issues that arise from the market. Consequently, Resort All Inclusive is able to access market sentiments hence undertaking the necessary product and service improvements. Upon launching an advertising campaign and public relations campaign, the resortÃ¢â¬â¢s management team objective is for the campaign to run for one year. It is the objective of Resort All Inclusive management team that one year is sufficient to create the desired level of market awareness. However, the firm is cognisant of the need to ensure that consumers are constantly informed. Consequently, the firm allocates a substantial amount of money in its budget for the campaign. In this campaign, the firm has allocated $2 million to cater for the campaign. Despite the cost involved, the advertising campaign is very effective in enhancing the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s long term survival (OÃ¢â¬â¢Guinnn, 2009). Conclusion There is a high probability of Resort All Inclusive succeeding in attaining a substantial market share in the 3-star hotel industry in Mallorca. This arises from the fact that the firm is committed at creating sufficient market awareness. The advertising and public relations campaign have been very effective in influencing the consumers in their decision making process. From the analysis conducted, it is evident that Resort All Inclusive hotel is committed at increasing its sales revenue by undertaking a comprehensive advertising and public relations campaign. The objective of th e ad campaign adopted by the resort will enable the firm to continuously develop sufficient level of market awareness amongst the target customer groups. The firm will derive its success from the effectiveness with which it creates market awareness. By adopting the above advertising campaign, there is likelihood that the resort will attract both domestic and foreign customers. This arises from the fact that the resort will continuously appeal to its target customer groups hence influencing their purchase decisions. The use of traditional and emerging marketing communication mediums will create awareness to a large number of potential customers. Consequently, the firm will increase its customer base. The public relations campaigns will improve the effectiveness with which the firm interacts with its customers. The sporting event attracts numerous sports athletes and fans hence improving the resorts publicity. To determine the effectiveness of the advertising campaign, Resort All Incl usive undertakes continuous review of the campaign. The review aids Resort All Inclusive in the process of making the necessary adjustments hence improving its effectiveness. Reference List Buswell, R. (2009). Mallorca and tourism. History, economy and environment. Mallorca: Channel View Publications. Drewniany, B. Jewler, J. (2008). Creative strategy in advertising. New York: Cengage. Gregory, A. (2000). Planning and managing public relations campaign. New York: Kogan Page. Havaldar, K. (2010). Business marketing: text and cases. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill. Jenkins, J. Pigram, J. (2006). Encyclopaedia of leisure and outdoor recreation. New York: Routledge. Johnson, G., Scholes, K. Whittington, R. (2008). Exploring corporate strategy: TextÃ and cases. London: Prentice Hall. Kazmi, A. (2008). Strategic management and business policy. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill Education. Marchand, D. (2000). Competing with information. New York: John Wiley and Sons. OÃ¢â¬â¢Guinnn, T., Allen, C. Semenik, R. (2009). Advertising and integrated brandÃ promotion. Mason, OH: Cengage.
Monday, November 4, 2019
Microsoft vs. Apple OS - Research Paper Example Operating systems handles the details of the interaction between the user and the hardware. The operating systems are generally used in nearly all computing devices ranging from desktop computers to video games. There basically two prominent operating systems that exist for various functions and professionals; Microsoft windows and the Apple operating system. Depending on the function, the two operating systems exhibit some dissimilarity. For example, for architects and landscape architects, Microsoft windows has traditionally been one of the dominant operating system as it is compatible with a variety of programs relevant to the field such as the Autodesk AutoCAD (Cantrell & Michaels CHAP 1). The operating system OS X and Windows are two different types of operating systems that are created by Apple and the Microsoft companies respectively. The operating system OS X will run on Apple hardware only otherwise referred to as Mac computers, but Windows operating system will run on almos t any compatible hardware referred to as PC computers as well as those produced by Apple organization. Most people who prefer the Apple Mac computers operating on the apple OS X platform argue that Mac accessories are more reliable, that is, they are less prone to program crashing or unexpected shut-downs than PCs which operate on the Microsoft windows platform. However, this remains to a matter to be debated upon by proponents of both operating systems. According to a consumer report survey of laptop computers for the year 2008, two computer gadgets emerged out as the best laptop brands (Peterka pp17-19). These were Mac manufactured by Apple and the Lenovo which incidentally runs on the Microsoft windows operating system. But of the two, Lenovo had a better score than the former in terms of reliability. The Mac on the contrary also recorded a higher score than Lenovo in terms client service and satisfaction. Arguments have therefore erupted as to which operating system is more supe rior to the other. Microsoft windows operating system on the other hand, is a computer software developed by the Microsoft corporation. It is indeed among the leading personal computing platform. The organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s nature of allowing for the licensing of its windows software products to some firms that have been in the computer manufacturing business, has been the key factor that has seen to Microsoft domination in the computer market. In most cases, Microsoft windows has work in hand in hand with other giant computer manufacturing firms such as HP, Toshiba, Dell and many others. They have availed some of their hardware to virtually all computer users owing to their high compatibility with a variety of computer sets (Silverman pp5-10). The ease of availability of Microsoft products has therefore means that the organization greatly benefits from economies of scale in a way that the cost of these products becomes less expensive. This consequently implies that Microsoft operatin g system based computer products are affordable and easily accessible when compared to the Apple Macs. The affordability of Microsoft products has also been associated with certain stumbling blocks. For instance, through MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s ever willingness to partner with virtually any party intending to do computer related business activities, the company is therefore usually obliged to carry out all that is within its premise to ascertain that their clients are able to get a Microsoft software that is compatible with the new hardware that the partner company is manufacturing. This might the cost the company a great deal in terms of constant updating of its products which may put the Microsoft Corporation at a shear point of bloating. Also, Microsoft operating system has won the favor of the majority of people owing to the fact that more often than not, it usually ensures that its even its newer operating system can still be compatible even with the older operating system. However, but just like other case, this has also
Friday, November 1, 2019
Mr. Ps Case Study Solution - Essay Example As the report stressesÃ the primary objective being treatment of the patient is important for the patient and his wife to comply with the prescribed medication with the help of an outpatientÃ¢â¬â¢s nurse supervision. The medications include ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers, which will improve the health of the patient by stabilizing the patient for more therapeutic measures.This discussion declares thatÃ most patients suffering from CHF diseases are adamant to undertake medication while in hospitals since they pray for their demise. Mr. PÃ¢â¬â¢s condition is similar, thus there is need for the patient to receive home care from his wife or the wife may hire a caregiver. The home care will involve contacting the nurse daily after referral and a weekly outpatient nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s visit to ensure the patient is in good condition. The patient and the caregiver should be educated on the various ways to improve the health of the patient and the consequences of failure to oblige with t he medication plan. Psychological education is important to ensure that the patient and the caregiver learn to accept the disease. The caregiver will acknowledge the essence of keeping constant communication and trust with the patient that will reduce the pain experienced due to depression and despair.Ã The patient will learn to become friendlier with the caregiver thus building a bond that will enable decision making easier for both parties and solve depression issues. The caregiver will learn the importance of trusting the patient on some decision making to enhance the patient feeling valuable.
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Brand image of Kenya as a destination - Dissertation Example With the aim to identify the image of and the potential of Kenya as a destination, three objectives were set in Chapter I. After extensive literature review, the methodology was stated in Chapter III. This was a quantitative study in which primary data was collected through survey questionnaires. The findings and conclusion have been presented below. The study concludes that Kenya offers various attractions such sports, adventure, nature-based holiday, wildlife and safaris and beach and cultural tourism. However, nature and wildlife tourism are the only ones that are largely advertised for as is evident from some of the brochures from different countries. The perception of Kenya in the minds of the people is that of a country with low cost of living, a country where theft and robbery is common, or a country that specializes in wildlife tours and nature-based tourism. Nowhere has beach tourism or cultural tourism been publicized. People derive their perceptions either through their ow n experience or through the media. The tour operators play a critical role in projecting the right image of any destination. The tour operators in turn, should be educated and familiarized with the destination by the host country government. The study concludes that Kenya carries a poor brand image in the minds of the people. The brand image can be enhanced through proper marketing strategy and through educating the tourists. Table of Contents Chapter I: Introduction 1.1 Background 1 1.2 Rationale for the study 2 1.3 Research Aims and Objectives 2 1.4 Structure of the study 3 Chapter II: Literature Review 2.1 Kenya Ã¢â¬â as a destination 5 2.1.1 Mass tourism and decline 6 2.1.2 Tourist activities in Kenya 8 2.2 Motivation for tourism 9 2.3 Brand image in tourism 10 2.4 Role of tour operators 13 Chapter III: Methodology 3.1 Research philosophy 14 3.2 Purpose and phenomenon of research 14 3.3 Epistemology 14 3.4 Research approach 15 3.5 Data collection 15 3.6 Data collection instru ment 16 3.7 Research Design 16 3.8 Ethical concerns 17 Chapter IV: Findings and Discussions 4.1 Introduction 18 4.2 Findings from survey 18 4.3 Discussions 24 Chapter V: Conclusion and Recommendations 5.1 Conclusion 27 5.2 Limitations 28 5.3 Recommendations 28 References 30 Appendices 32 Figures and Charts Figure 2.1 Brochure of Ministry of Tourism 11 Figure 2.2 Brochure of UK-based tour operator 12 Figure 2.3 Brochure of an Australian-based tour operator 13 Chart 4.1 Age Group 18 Chart 4.2: Occupation 19 Chart 4.3: Visited Kenya 19 Chart 4.4: Purpose of visit 20 Chart 4.5: Duration of stay 20 Chart 4.6: Accommodation used 21 Chart 4.7: Image of Kenya 21 Chart 4.8: Perceptions of safety 22 Chart 4.9: Source of information 22 Chart 4.10 Memorable experiences 23 Chart 4.11: Perception 24 Chapter I: Introduction 1.1 Background One of the changes brought about by globalization is change in consumer demand. Changes in consumer demand have impacted several business sectors including the t ourism sector. As demand for new sectors has developed tourists constantly seek newer destinations. In the 20th century tourism has grown as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest industry even surpassing industries such as autos, steel, electronics, and agriculture (Sirgy & Su, 2000). Tourism is a large source of foreign exchange, employment and enhanced income due to which all attention and resources are diverted towards this industry. Changes have occurred in the structure of the society as a result of more purchasing power in the hands of the people. This is one of the strong reasons that tourism worldwide has grown proportions. It thus becomes the responsibility of the destination managers
Monday, October 28, 2019
Analsysis of the Hero by Siegfried Sassoon Essay Analysis- The Hero Brief Summary of Content-In the Poem The Hero Sassoon has presented the hardships that a soldier goes through in the war through the use of the soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s death. He also shows the pain of the families left behind by showing the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s pain after she finds out that her son as died on the battle fields. The first stanza is introducing the mother at the moment that she finds out her son has died. The mother reads a letter that a Colonel wrote for her and she hides her true feelings about her sonÃ¢â¬â¢s death because she believes that if she is upset she will dishonour his memory. In the second stanza the brother officer is introduced and he has lied to the mother about how her son had died. The brother officer is patronising to the mother in this stanza because he lies straight to her face about how her son had died and he is doing it so she would not suffer anymore. In the last stanza the brother officer is remembering how Jack had behaved in his last days. The brother officer portrays Jack as being a coward in his last days on the battlefields and this contradicts what he told the mother. The last stanza also shows that Jack tried to get home because of the hardships of war but died before he could. The last stanza also shows that no one cares about what happened to Jack except his mother the Ã¢â¬ËLonely woman with white hairÃ¢â¬â¢. Themes and Issues raised in poem- Sassoon has included realistic issues in his poem Ã¢â¬ËThe HeroÃ¢â¬â¢. He clearly portrays the death, and pain associated with war. He also shows the fear associated with fighting through JackÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude in the poem.